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Real Raw Milk Facts

Scientific References

See also Outbreak Tables

Unpasteurized (Raw) Milk Outbreaks

Allerberger, F., Wagner, M., Schweiger, P., Rammer, H. P., Resch, A., Dierich, M. P., Friedrich, A. W., et al. (2001). Escherichia coli O157 infections and unpasteurised milk. Euro surveillance bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles European communicable disease bulletin.

Allerberger, F., Friedrich, A. W., Grif, K., Dierich, M. P., Dornbusch, H.-J., Mache, C. J., Nachbaur, E., et al. (2003). Hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26:H infection and consumption of unpasteurized cow’s milk. International journal of infectious diseases IJID official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12718809

Anonymous. (1984). Outbreak of tick-borne encephalitis, presumably milk-borne. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 69:140-1.

Anonymous. (1995). Brucellosis associated with unpasteurized milk products abroad. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 70:308-9.

Bandy, W. H. (1953). Typhoid fever and raw milk. Delaware Medical Journal, 25(9), 255-258.

Bielaszewska, M., Janda, J., Bláhová, K., Minaríková, H., Jíková, E., Karmali, M. A., Laubová, J., et al. (1997). Human Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with the consumption of unpasteurized goat’s milk. Epidemiology and Infection, 119(3), 299-305. Cambridge University Press.

Blaser, M. J., Cravens, J., Powers, B. W., Laforce, F. M., & Wang, W. L. (1979). Campylobacter enteritis associated with unpasteurized milk. The American Journal of Medicine.

Brown, G. L., Colwell, D. C., & Hooper, W. L. (1968). An outbreak of Q fever in Staffordshire. The Journal of hygiene, 66(4), 649-655. Cambridge University Press.

CDC. (1981a). Salmonella dublin associated with raw milk–Washington state. MMWR 30:373-4.

CDC. (1981b). Salmonellosis associated with raw milk–Montana. MMWR 30:211-2.

CDC. (1981c). Outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis associated with raw milk–Kansas. MMWR 30:218-20.

CDC. (1984a). Leads from the MMWR. Salmonella dublin and raw milk consumption. Jama, 251, 2195, 2199.

CDC. (1984b). Campylobacter outbreak associated with certified raw milk products–California. MMWR 33:562.

CDC. (1985). Campylobacter outbreak associated with raw milk provided on a dairy tour–California. MMWR 35:311-2.

CDC. (1999). Mass treatment of humans who drank unpasteurized milk from rabid cows–Massachusetts, 1996-1998. Jama, 281, 1371-2.

CDC. (2002). Outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with drinking unpasteurized milk procured through a cow-leasing program–Wisconsin, 2001. MMWR 51:548-9.

CDC. (2003). Multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype typhimurium infections associated with drinking unpasteurized milk–Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Tennessee, 2002-2003. MMWR 52:613-5.

CDC. (2007a). Salmonella typhimurium infection associated with raw milk and cheese consumption–Pennsylvania, 2007. MMWR 56:1161-4.

CDC. (2007b). Salmonella typhimurium infection associated with raw milk and cheese consumption–Pennsylvania, 2007. MMWR 56:1161-4.

CDC. (2009a). Campylobacter jejuni Infection Associated with Unpasteurized Milk and Cheese — Kansas, 2007. MMWR 57:1377-9.

CDC. (2009b). Campylobacter jejuni Infection Associated with Unpasteurized Milk and Cheese — Kansas, 2007. MMWR 57:1377-9.

CDPH. (2008). Cluster of Campylobacter infections possibly associated with raw dairy products. Available at: http://www.marlerblog.com/Cluster%20of%20Campylobacter%20infections.pdf.

CDPH. (2009). Epidemiological summary of human brucellosis in California. Available from: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/data/statistics/Documents/brucellosis-episummary.pdf.

Centers For Disease Control And Prevention. (2007). Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with drinking raw milk—Washington and Oregon, November-December 2005. Mmwr Morbidity And Mortality Weekly Report, 56(8), 165-167. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5608a3.htm

Denny, J., Bhat, M., & Eckmann, K. (2008). Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with raw milk consumption in the Pacific Northwest. Foodborne Pathogens And Disease, 5(3), 321-328. Retrieved from http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/fpd.2007.0072

Edwards, A. T., Roulson, M., & Ironside, M. J. (1988). A milk-borne outbreak of serious infection due to Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Lancefield Group C). Epidemiology and Infection, 101(1), 43-51. Cambridge University Press.

Edwards, C., & Jawad, A. S. M. (2006). History of brucellosis. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 99(2), 54. The Royal Society of Medicine.

Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections in children associated with raw milk and raw colostrum from cows—California, 2006. (2008). Mmwr Morbidity And Mortality Weekly Report, 57(23), 625-628. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18551097

Etter, E., Donado, P., Jori, F., Caron, A., Goutard, F., & Roger, F. (2006). Risk analysis and bovine tuberculosis, a re-emerging zoonosis. Annals Of The New York Academy Of Sciences, 1081(1), 61-73. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17135495

Evans, M. R., Roberts, R. J., Ribeiro, C. D., Gardner, D., & Kembrey, D. (1996). A milk-borne Campylobacter outbreak following an educational farm visit. Epidemiology and Infection, 117(3), 457-462. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8972669

Fierer, J. (1983). Invasive Salmonella dublin Infections Associated With Drinking Raw Milk. The Western journal of medicine, 138(5), 665-669.

Gutiérrez García, J. M. (2006). Milk as a vector of transmission of bovine tuberculosis to humans in Spain: a historical perspective. Veterinary heritage bulletin of the American Veterinary History Society, 29(2), 41-44.

Guh, A., Phan, Q., Nelson, R., Purviance, K., Milardo, E., Kinney, S., Mshar, P., et al. (2010). Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 associated with raw milk, Connecticut, 2008. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 51(12), 1411-1417. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21058911

Harper, C. M., Cowell, N. A., Adams, B. C., Langley, A. J., Wohlsen, T. D., & August, I. (2002). Outbreak of Cryptosporidium linked to drinking unpasteurised milk. Exposure, 26(3), 2001-2002. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/cda-pubs-cdi-2002-cdi2603-htm-cdi2603n.htm

Harris, N. V., Kimball, T. J., Bennett, P., Johnson, Y., Wakely, D., & Nolan, C. M. (1987). Campylobacter jejuni enteritis associated with raw goat’s milk. American Journal of Epidemiology, 126(2), 1092.

Hudson, P. J., Vogt, R. L., Brondum, J., & Patton, C. M. (1984). Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from milk during an outbreak of campylobacteriosis. The Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Humphrey, T. J., & Hart, R. J. (1988). Campylobacter and Salmonella contamination of unpasteurized cows’ milk on sale to the public. The Journal of applied bacteriology, 65(6), 463-467.

Hutchinson, D. N., Bolton, F. J., Hinchliffe, P. M., Dawkins, H. C., Horsley, S. D., Jessop, E. G., Robertshaw, P. A., et al. (1985). Evidence of udder excretion of Campylobacter jejuni as the cause of milk-borne Campylobacter outbreak. The Journal of hygiene, 94(2), 205-215. Cambridge University Press.

Hutchinson, D. N., Bolton, F. J., Jelley, W. C., Mathews, W. G., Telford, D. R., Counter, D. E., Jessop, E. G., et al. (2003). Campylobacter enteritis associated with consumption of raw goat’s milk. The Journal of hygiene, 1(2), 155-162. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2134038&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract

Hutchinson, R. I. (1964). Milk-borne outbreak of Salmonella heidelberg. British medical journal, 1(5381), 479-480.

Ikeda, T., Tamate, N., Yamaguchi, K., & Makino, S.-ichi. (2005). Mass Outbreak of Food Poisoning Disease Caused by Small Amounts of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins A and H. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(5), 2793-2795. American Society for Microbiology.

Jezyna, C., Weglińska, T., Nawrocka, E., Falecka, W., Wielizcko-Gebska, L., Rodkiewicz, T., Piesiak, Z., et al. (1976). Milk-borne outbreak of tick-borne encephalitis in Olsztyn Province. Przeglad Epidemiologiczny, 30(4), 479-489.

Jørgensen, H. J., Mathisen, T., Løvseth, A., Omoe, K., Qvale, K. S., & Loncarevic, S. (2005). An outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning caused by enterotoxin H in mashed potato made with raw milk. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 252(2), 267-272. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16213675

Keene, W. E., Hedberg, K., Herriott, D. E., Hancock, D. D., McKay, R. W., Barrett, T. J., & Fleming, D. W. (1997). A prolonged outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections caused by commercially distributed raw milk. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 176(3), 815-818. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9291342

Kerbo, N., Donchenko, I., Kutsar, K., & Vasilenko, V. (2005). Tickborne encephalitis outbreak in Estonia linked to raw goat milk, May-June 2005. Euro surveillance bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles European communicable disease bulletin, 10(6), E050623.2. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16783104

Klein, B. S., Vergeront, J. M., Blaser, M. J., Edmonds, P., Brenner, D. J., Janssen, D., & Davis, J. P. (1986). Campylobacter infection associated with raw milk. An outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Campylobacter jejuni and thermotolerant Campylobacter fetus subsp fetus. Jama The Journal Of The American Medical Association, 255(3), 361-364.

Korlath, J. A., Osterholm, M. T., Judy, L. A., Forfang, J. C., & Robinson, R. A. (1985). A point-source outbreak of campylobacteriosis associated with consumption of raw milk. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 152(3), 592-596. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/152/3/592.abstract

Kornblatt, A. N., Barrett, T., Morris, G. K., & Tosh, F. E. (1985). Epidemiological and laboratory investigation of an outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis associated with raw milk. American Journal of Epidemiology, 122(5), 884-889.

Liptakova, A., Siegfried, L., Rosocha, J., Podracka, L., Bogyiova, E., & Kotulova, D. (2004). A family outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and haemorrhagic colitis caused by verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 from unpasteurised cow’s milk in Slovakia. Clinical microbiology and infection the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 10(6), 576-578.

Mazurek, J., Salehi, E., Propes, D., Holt, J., Bannerman, T., Nicholson, L. M., Bundesen, M., et al. (2004). A multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium infection linked to raw milk consumption—Ohio, 2003. Journal Of Food Protection, 67(10), 2165-2170.

McIntyre, L., Fung, J., Paccagnella, A., Isaac-Renton, J., Rockwell, F., Emerson, B., & Preston, T. (2002). Escherichia coli O157 outbreak associated with the ingestion of unpasteurized goat’s milk in British Columbia, 2001. Canada communicable disease report Releve des maladies transmissibles au Canada, 28(1), 6-8.

McNaughton, R. D., Leyland, R., & Mueller, L. (1982). Outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis due to consumption of raw milk. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 126(6), 657-658.

Memish, Z. A., & Balkhy, H. H. (2004). Brucellosis and international travel. Journal of Travel Medicine, 11(1), 49-55. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14769288

Morgan, D., Gunneberg, C., Gunnell, D., Healing, T. D., Lamerton, S., Soltanpoor, N., Lewis, D. A., et al. (1994). An outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with the consumption of unpasteurised milk at a large festival in England. KEuropean Journal of Epidemiology, 10(5), 581-585.

Ormsbee, R. (1980). Q fever and raw milk. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.

Orr, K. E., Lightfoot, N. F., Sisson, P. R., Harkis, B. A., Tweddle, J. L., Boyd, P., Carroll, A., et al. (1995). Direct milk excretion of Campylobacter jejuni in a dairy cow causing cases of human enteritis. Epidemiology and Infection, 114(1), 15-24. Cambridge University Press.

Porter, I. A., & Reid, T. M. (1980). A milk-borne outbreak of Campylobacter infection. The Journal of hygiene, 84(3), 415-419. Cambridge University Press.

Potter, M. E., Blaser, M. J., Sikes, R. K., Kaufmann, A. F., & Wells, J. G. (1983). Human Campylobacter infection associated with certified raw milk. American Journal of Epidemiology, 117(4), 475-483.

Proctor, M. E., & Davis, J. P. (2000). Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections in Wisconsin, 1992-1999. WMJ official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin, 97(5), 31-32.

Richwald, G. A., Greenland, S., Johnson, B. J., Friedland, J. M., Goldstein, E. J., & Plichta, D. T. (1988). Assessment of the excess risk of Salmonella dublin infection associated with the use of certified raw milk. Public health reports Washington DC 1974, 103(5), 489-493. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1478111&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract

Riemann, H. P., Meyer, M. E., Theis, J. H., Kelso, G., & Behymer, D. E. (1975). Toxoplasmosis in an infant fed unpasteurized goat milk. The Journal of Pediatrics.

Robinson, D. A., & Jones, D. M. (1981). Milk-borne Campylobacter infection. British medical journal Clinical research ed, 282(6273), 1374-1376. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1505000&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract

Schildt, M., Savolainen, S., & Hänninen, M.-L. (2006). Long-lasting Campylobacter jejuni contamination of milk associated with gastrointestinal illness in a farming family. Epidemiology and Infection, 134(2), 401-405. Cambridge University Press.

Schmid, G. P., Schaefer, R. E., Plikaytis, B. D., Schaefer, J. R., Bryner, J. H., Wintermeyer, L. A., & Kaufmann, A. F. (1987). A one-year study of endemic campylobacteriosis in a midwestern city: association with consumption of raw milk. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 156(1), 218-222. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=3598217

Schmida, T. O. (1983). Salmonella dublin infections from raw milk. The Western journal of medicine.

Shaalan, M. A., Memish, Z. A., Mahmoud, S. A., Alomari, A., Khan, M. Y., Almuneef, M., & Alalola, S. (2002). Brucellosis in children: clinical observations in 115 cases. International journal of infectious diseases IJID official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 6(3), 182-186. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1201971202901086

Small, R. G., & Sharp, J. C. (1979). A milk-borne outbreak due to Salmonella dublin. The Journal of hygiene, 82(1), 95-100. Cambridge University Press.

Tacket, C. O., Dominguez, L. B., Fisher, H. J., & Cohen, M. L. (1985). An outbreak of multiple-drug-resistant Salmonella enteritis from raw milk. Jama The Journal Of The American Medical Association.

Taylor, D. N., Porter, B. W., Williams, C. A., Miller, H. G., Bopp, C. A., & Blake, P. A. (1982). Campylobacter enteritis: a large outbreak traced to commercial raw milk. The Western journal of medicine, 137(5), 365-369.

The Centers For Disease Control And Prevention. (2005). Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis—New York City, 2001-2004. MMWR Morbidity And Mortality Weekly Report, 54(24), 605-608. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5424a4.htm

Vogt, R. L., Hakey, A., & Allen, J. (1981). From the Vermont State Health Department. Salmonella enteritis serotype derby and consumption of raw milk. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 144(6), 608.

Wale, M. C., Liddicoat, A. J., & Pether, J. V. (1991). Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 2 serotype O9 septicaemia in a previously fit man, raw goats’ milk having been the apparent vehicle of infection: a cautionary tale. The Journal of Infection.

Warner, D. P., Bryner, J. H., & Beran, G. W. (1986). Epidemiologic study of campylobacteriosis in Iowa cattle and the possible role of unpasteurized milk as a vehicle of infection. American Journal Of Veterinary Research, 47(2), 254-258.

Werner, S. B., Humphrey, G. L., & Kamei, I. (1979). Association between raw milk and human Salmonella dublin infection. British medical journal, 2(6184), 238-241.

Wright, E. P., Tillett, H. E., Hague, J. T., Clegg, F. G., Darnell, R., Culshaw, J. A., & Sorrell, J. A. (1983). Milk-borne Campylobacter enteritis in a rural area. The Journal of hygiene, 91(2), 227-233. Cambridge University Press.

Zagrebneviene, G., Jasulaitiene, V., Morkunas, B., Tarbunas, S., & Ladygaite, J. (2005). Shigella sonnei outbreak due to consumption of unpasteurised milk curds in Vilnius, Lithuania, 2004. Euro surveillance bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles European communicable disease bulletin, 10(12), E051201.3.


Pasteurized Milk Outbreaks


Ackers, M. L., Schoenfeld, S., Markman, J., Smith, M. G., Nicholson, M. A., DeWitt, W., Cameron, D. N., et al. (2000). An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 infections associated with pasteurized milk. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 181(5), 1834-1837.

Birkhead, G., Vogt, R. L., Heun, E., Evelti, C. M., & Patton, C. M. (1988). A multiple-strain outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis due to consumption of inadequately pasteurized milk. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 157(5), 1095-1097.

Black, R. E., Jackson, R. J., Tsai, T., Medvesky, M., Shayegani, M., Feeley, J. C., MacLeod, K. I., et al. (1978). Epidemic Yersinia enterocolitica infection due to contaminated chocolate milk. The New England Journal of Medicine, 298(2), 76-79.

CDC. (1966). Shigellosis outbreak - Florida. MMWR 15:442.

CDC. (1975). A common-source outbreak of Salmonella Newport – Louisiana. MMWR 24:413-4.

CDC. (1979). Salmonella gastroenteritis associated with milk – Arizona. MMWR 28:117-20.

CDC. (1984). Salmonellosis from inadequately pasteurized milk–Kentucky. MMWR 33:505-6.

Cumming, M., Kludt, P., Matyas, B., DeMaria, A., Stiles, T., Han, L., Gilchrist, M., et al. (2008). Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections associated with pasteurized milk from a local dairy—Massachusetts, 2007. Mmwr Morbidity And Mortality Weekly Report. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18846031

Dalton, C. B., Austin, C. C., Sobel, J., Hayes, P. S., Bibb, W. F., Graves, L. M., Swaminathan, B., et al. (1997). An outbreak of gastroenteritis and fever due to Listeria monocytogenes in milk. The New England Journal of Medicine, 336(2), 100-105. Retrieved from http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/336/2/100

Fleming, D. W., Cochi, S. L., MacDonald, K. L., Brondum, J., Hayes, P. S., Plikaytis, B. D., Holmes, M. B., et al. (1985). Pasteurized milk as a vehicle of infection in an outbreak of listeriosis. The New England Journal of Medicine, 312(7), 404-407. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM198502143120704?hits=10&andorexactfulltext=and&FIRSTINDEX=650&FIRSTINDEX=650&SEARCHID=1&searchid=1&COLLECTION_NUM=5&resourcetype=HWCIT&resourcetype=HWCIT&andorexacttitleabs=and&#t=articleTop

Hennessy, T. W., Hedberg, C. W., Slutsker, L., White, K. E., Besser-Wiek, J. M., Moen, M. E., Feldman, J., et al. (1996). A national outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infections from ice cream. The Investigation Team. The New England Journal of Medicine, 334(20), 1281-1286. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8609944

Lofgren, J. P., Konigsberg, C., Rendtorff, R., Zee, V., Hutcheson, R. H., Rausa, A., Brower, D., et al. (1982). Multi-state outbreak of yersiniosis. Mmwr Morbidity And Mortality Weekly Report, 31(37), 505-506.

Olsen, S. J., Ying, M., Davis, M. F., Deasy, M., Holland, B., Iampietro, L., Baysinger, C. M., et al. (2004). Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium infection from milk contaminated after pasteurization. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(5), 932-935. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=15200835

Ryan, C. A., Nickels, M. K., Hargrett-Bean, N. T., Potter, M. E., Endo, T., Mayer, L., Langkop, C. W., et al. (1987). Massive outbreak of antimicrobial-resistant salmonellosis traced to pasteurized milk. Jama The Journal Of The American Medical Association, 258(22), 3269-3274. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3316720

T., J. M., Yuan, J., Mandrell, R. E., Bates, A., Manalac, R., O’Connell, J., Mohle-Boetani, J., et al. (2007). Use of MOMP typing as an epidemiological tool during a large campylobacteriosis outbreak investigation. 107th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Toronto, Canada.

Tacket, C. O., Narain, J. P., Sattin, R., Lofgren, J. P., Konigsberg, C., Rendtorff, R. C., Rausa, A., et al. (1984). A multistate outbreak of infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica transmitted by pasteurized milk. Jama The Journal Of The American Medical Association, 251(4), 483-486.


Cheese Outbreaks


Boggs, J. D., Whitwam, R. E., Hale, L. M., Briscoe, R. P., Kahn, S. E., MacCormack, J. N., Maillard, J. M., et al. (2001). Outbreak of listeriosis associated with homemade Mexican-Style cheese - North Carolina, October-2000-January 2001 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 50,pg 560-562, 2001). Jama Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(6), 664-665.

Brooks, J., Martinez, B., Stratton, J., Bianchini, A., Krokstrom, R., & Hutkins, R. (2012). Survey of raw milk cheeses for microbiological quality and prevalence of foodborne pathogens. Food Microbiol, 31(2), 154-8.

CDC. (1985). Listeriosis outbreak associated with Mexican-style cheese—California. Mmwr Morbidity And Mortality Weekly Report, 34(24), 357-359.

CDC. (2000). Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with eating fresh cheese curds—Wisconsin, June 1998. Mmwr Morbidity And Mortality Weekly Report, 49(40), 911-913. Retrieved from

CDC. (2001). Outbreak of Listeriosis Associated With Homemade Cheese — North Carolina , October 2000 – January 2001 Outbreak in. Jama. MMWR 50: 560-562; Jama 286(6): 664-665.

CDC. (2007a). Salmonella typhimurium infection associated with raw milk and cheese consumption–Pennsylvania, 2007. MMWR 56:1161-4.

CDC. (2007b). Salmonella typhimurium infection associated with raw milk and cheese consumption–Pennsylvania, 2007. MMWR 56:1161-4.

CDC. (2008). Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections associated with consumption of unpasteurized Mexican-style aged cheese—Illinois, March 2006-April 2007. Mmwr Morbidity And Mortality Weekly Report, 57(16), 432-435. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5716a4.htm

CDC. (2009). Campylobacter jejuni Infection Associated with Unpasteurized Milk and Cheese — Kansas, 2007. MMWR 57:1377-9.

Campbell, D. M., Cowden, J. M., Morris, G., Reilly, W. J., & O’Brien, S. J. (1996). Cheese and Salmonella infection. All milk products should be heat treated. BMJ British Medical Journal. BMJ Group. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8616433

Cody, S. H., Abbott, S. L., Marfin, A. A., Schulz, B., Wagner, P., Robbins, K., Mohle-Boetani, J. C., et al. (1999). Two outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotype typhimurium DT104 infections linked to raw-milk cheese in Northern California. Jama The Journal Of The American Medical Association, 281(19), 1805-1810. Retrieved from http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/doi/10.1001/jama.281.19.1805

Danielsson-Tham, M.-L., Eriksson, E., Helmersson, S., Leffler, M., Lüdtke, L., Steen, M., Sørgjerd, S., et al. (2004). Causes behind a human cheese-borne outbreak of gastrointestinal listeriosis. Foodborne Pathogens And Disease, 1(3), 153-159.

De Valk, H., Delarocque-Astagneau, E., Colomb, G., Ple, S., Godard, E., Vaillant, V., Haeghebaert, S., et al. (2000). A community—wide outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infection associated with eating a raw milk soft cheese in France. Epidemiology and Infection, 124(1), 1-7. Cambridge University Press.

Delcenserie, V., Gavini, F., China, B., & Daube, G. (2011). Bifidobacterium pseudolongum are efficient indicators of animal fecal contamination in raw milk cheese industry. BMC Microbiology, 11(1), 178. BioMed Central. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/11/178

Deschênes, G., Casenave, C., Grimont, F., Desenclos, J. C., Benoit, S., Collin, M., Baron, S., et al. (1996). Cluster of cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome due to unpasteurised cheese. Pediatric nephrology Berlin Germany, 10(2), 203-205.

Desenclos, J. C., Bouvet, P., Benz-Lemoine, E., Grimont, F., Desqueyroux, H., Rebière, I., & Grimont, P. A. (1996). Large outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi B infection caused by a goats’ milk cheese, France, 1993: a case finding and epidemiological study. BMJ British Medical Journal, 312(7023), 91-94. BMJ Group. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE

Goulet, V., Jacquet, C., Vaillant, V., Rebière, I., Mouret, E., Lorente, C., Maillot, E., et al. (1995). Listeriosis from consumption of raw-milk cheese. Lance.

Haeghebaert, S., Sulem, P., Deroudille, L., Vanneroy-Adenot, E., Bagnis, O., Bouvet, P., Grimont, F., et al. (2003). Two outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 8 linked to the consumption of Cantal cheese made with raw milk, France, 2001. Euro surveillance bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles European communicable disease bulletin, 8(7), 151-156.

Honish, L., Predy, G., Hislop, N., Chui, L., Kowalewska-Grochowska, K., Trottier, L., Kreplin, C., et al. (2005). An outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 hemorrhagic colitis associated with unpasteurized gouda cheese. Canadian Journal Of Public Health Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique, 96(3), 182-184. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15913080

Linnan, M. J., Mascola, L., Lou, X. D., Goulet, V., May, S., Salminen, C., Hird, D. W., et al. (1988). Epidemic Listeriosis Associated with Mexican-Style Cheese. New England Journal of Medicine, (319), 823-828. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM198809293191303

MacDonald, P. D. M., Whitwam, R. E., Boggs, J. D., MacCormack, J. N., Anderson, K. L., Reardon, J. W., Saah, J. R., et al. (2005). Outbreak of listeriosis among Mexican immigrants as a result of consumption of illicitly produced Mexican-style cheese. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(5), 677-682. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15714412

Maguire, H., Cowden, J., Jacob, M., Rowe, B., Roberts, D., Bruce, J., & Mitchell, E. (1992). An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection in England and Wales associated with a soft unpasteurized cows’ milk cheese. Epidemiology and Infection, 109(3), 389-396. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2271942&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract

Méndez Martínez, C., Páez Jiménez, A., Cortés-Blanco, M., Salmoral Chamizo, E., Mohedano Mohedano, E., Plata, C., Varo Baena, A., et al. (2003). Brucellosis outbreak due to unpasteurized raw goat cheese in Andalucia (Spain), January - March 2002. Euro surveillance bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles European communicable disease bulletin, 8(7), 164-168.

Proctor, M. E., & Davis, J. P. (2000). Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections in Wisconsin, 1992-1999. WMJ official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin, 97(5), 31-32.

Villar, R. G., Macek, M. D., Simons, S., Hayes, P. S., Goldoft, M. J., Lewis, J. H., Rowan, L. L., et al. (1999). Investigation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotype typhimurium DT104 infections linked to raw-milk cheese in Washington State. Jama The Journal Of The American Medical Association, 281(19), 1811-1816.


Pathogens in Milk


Ariyapitipun, T., Mustapha, A., & Clarke, A. D. (2000). Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk during fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Journal Of Food Protection, 63(1), 916-920. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10643784

Collins, M. T. (1997). Mycobacterium paratuberculosis: a potential food-borne pathogen? Journal of Dairy Science, 80(12), 3445-3448. Retrieved from http://jds.fass.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/12/3445

Doyle, M. P., & Roman, D. J. (1982). Prevalence and survival of Campylobacter jejuni in unpasteurized milk. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 44(5), 1154-1158.

D’Amico, D. J., & Donnelly, C. W. (2010). Microbiological quality of raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheese production in Vermont: effect of farm characteristics and practices. Journal of Dairy Science, 93(1), 134-147. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20059912

Gaya, P., Medina, M., & Nuñez, M. (1987). Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, faecal coliforms and Salmonellas in raw ewes’ milk. The Journal of applied bacteriology, 62(4), 321-326.

Houser, B. A., Donaldson, S. C., Kehoe, S. I., Heinrichs, A. J., & Jayarao, B. M. (2008). A survey of bacteriological quality and the occurrence of Salmonella in raw bovine colostrum. Foodborne Pathogens And Disease, 5(6), 853-858.

Hunt K, Drummond N, Murphy M, Butler F, Buckley J, Jordan K.  (2012).  A case of bovine raw milk contamination with Listeria monocytogenes. Ir Vet J. 2012 Jul 6;65(1):13.

Hussein, H. S., & Sakuma, T. (2005). Invited Review: Prevalence of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Dairy Cattle and Their Products. Journal of Dairy Science, 88(2), 450-465. Elsevier. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72706-5

Jayarao, B. M., Donaldson, S. C., Straley, B. A., Sawant, A. A., Hegde, N. V., & Brown, J. L. (2006). A survey of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk and raw milk consumption among farm families in Pennsylvania. Journal of Dairy Science, 89(7), 2451-2458. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16772561

Jayarao, B. M., & Henning, D. R. (2001). Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 84(10), 2157-2162. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11699446

Karns, J. S., Van Kessel, J. S., McCluskey, B. J., & Perdue, M. L. (2005). Prevalence of Salmonella enterica in bulk tank milk from US dairies as determined by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Dairy Science, 88(10), 3475-3479. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16162520

Kim, S. G., Kim, E. H., Lafferty, C. J., & Dubovi, E. (2005). Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 619-621. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15829205

Lund, B. M., Gould, G. W., & Rampling, A. M. (2002). Pasteurization of milk and the heat resistance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a critical review of the data. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 77(1-2), 135-45. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00057-0

McGee, P., Bolton, D. J., Sheridan, J. J., Earley, B., & Leonard, N. (2001). Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in unpasteurized milk stored at 8 degrees C. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 32(3), 89-92. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11264743

Oliver, S. P., Jayarao, B. M., & Almeida, R. A. (2005). Foodborne pathogens in milk and the dairy farm environment: food safety and public health implications. Foodborne Pathogens And Disease, 2(2), 115-129. doi:10.1089/fpd.2005.2.115

Rea, M. C., Cogan, T. M., & Tobin, S. (1992). Incidence of pathogenic bacteria in raw milk in Ireland. The Journal of applied bacteriology, 73(4), 331-336.

Stabel, J. R. (2000). Johne’s disease and milk: do consumers need to worry? Journal of Dairy Science, 83(7), 1659-1663. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10908069

Van Kessel, J. S., Karns, J. S., Gorski, L., McCluskey, B. J., & Perdue, M. L. (2004). Prevalence of Salmonellae, Listeria monocytogenes, and fecal coliforms in bulk tank milk on US dairies. Journal of Dairy Science, 87(9), 2822-2830. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15375040

Wang, G., Zhao, T., & Doyle, M. P. (1997). Survival and Growth of Escherichia coli 0157 : H7 in Unpasteurized and Pasteurized Milk. Food Microbiology, 60(6), 610-613.


Health Benefit Studies


Barnes, M., Cullinan, P., Athanasaki, P., MacNeill, S., Hole, A. M., Harris, J., Kalogeraki, S., et al. (2001). Crete: does farming explain urban and rural differences in atopy? Clinical and experimental allergy journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 31(12), 1822-1828. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=emed5&AN=2002004436

Bell, R. (1925). The effect of heat on the solubility of the calcium and phosphorus compounds in milk. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 64(2), 391-400.

Bieli, C., Eder, W., Frei, R., Braun-Fahrländer, C., Klimecki, W., Waser, M., Riedler, J., et al. (2007). A polymorphism in CD14 modifies the effect of farm milk consumption on allergic diseases and CD14 gene expression. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 120(6), 1308-1315.

Braun-Fahrländer, C., & Von Mutius, E. (2011). Can farm milk consumption prevent allergic diseases? Clinical and experimental allergy journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 41(1), 29-35.

Debarry, J., Garn, H., Hanuszkiewicz, A., Dickgreber, N., Blümer, N., Von Mutius, E., Bufe, A., et al. (2007). Acinetobacter lwoffii and Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from farm cowsheds possess strong allergy-protective properties. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 119(6), 1514-1521. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17481709

Doyle, M. P., & Roman, D. J. (1982). Prevalence and survival of Campylobacter jejuni in unpasteurized milk. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 44(5), 1154-1158.

Ege, M. J., Frei, R., Bieli, C., Schram-Bijkerk, D., Waser, M., Benz, M. R., Weiss, G., et al. (2007). Not all farming environments protect against the development of asthma and wheeze in children. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 119(5), 1140-1147. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17349684

Fox, P. F. (1981). Heat-Induced Changes in Milk Preceding Coagulation. Journal of Dairy Science, 64(11), 2127-2137. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(81)82819-6

Hebeisen, D. F., Hoeflin, F., Reusch, H. P., Junker, E., & Lauterburg, B. H. (1993). Increased concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in milk and platelet rich plasma of grass-fed cows. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin und Ernahrungsforschung Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition, 63(3), 229-233.

Hess, A. (1916). Infantile scurvy: its influence on growth. The American Journal of Diseases of Children, 152-165.

Ivory, K., Chambers, S. J., Pin, C., Prieto, E., Arqués, J. L., & Nicoletti, C. (2008). Oral delivery of Lactobacillus casei Shirota modifies allergen-induced immune responses in allergic rhinitis. Clinical and experimental allergy journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 38(8), 1282-1289. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18510694

Payne-Botha, S., & Bigwood, E. J. (1959). Amino-acid content of raw and heat-sterilized cow’s milk. The British journal of nutrition, 13, 385-389.

Perkin, M R. (2007). Unpasteurized milk: health or hazard? Clinical and experimental allergy journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2007.02715.x/full

Perkin, Michael R, & Strachan, D. P. (2006). Which aspects of the farming lifestyle explain the inverse association with childhood allergy? The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 117(6), 1374-1381. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16751000

Pottenger, F. M. (1946). The effect of heat-processed foods and metabolized vitamin D milk on the dentofacial structures of experimental animals. American Journal of Orthodontics and Oral Surgery, 32, 467-485. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20996778

Radon, K., Windstetter, D., Eckart, J., Dressel, H., Leitritz, L., Reichert, J., Schmid, M., et al. (2004). Farming exposure in childhood, exposure to markers of infections and the development of atopy in rural subjects. Clinical and experimental allergy journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 34(8), 1178-1183. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15298556

Rajakumar, K. (2001). Infantile scurvy: a historical perspective. Pediatrics, 108(4), E76.

Remes, S. T., Iivanainen, K., Koskela, H., & Pekkanen, J. (2003). Which factors explain the lower prevalence of atopy amongst farmers’ children? Clinical and experimental allergy journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 33(4), 427-434. Retrieved from http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046%2Fj.1365-2222.2003.01566.x

Riedler, J., Braun-Fahrländer, C., Eder, W., Schreuer, M., Waser, M., Maisch, S., Carr, D., et al. (2001). Exposure to farming in early life and development of asthma and allergy: a cross-sectional survey. Lance, 358(9288), 1129-1133. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11597666

Sanders, M. E. (2008). Probiotics: definition, sources, selection, and uses. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46 Suppl 2 (Suppl 2), S58-S61; discussion S144-S151. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18181724

Von Ehrenstein, O. S., Von Mutius, E., Illi, S., Baumann, L., Böhm, O., & Von Kries, R. (2000). Reduced risk of hay fever and asthma among children of farmers. Clinical and experimental allergy journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 30(2), 187-193. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10651770

Waser, M., Michels, K. B., Bieli, C., Flöistrup, H., Pershagen, G., Von Mutius, E., Ege, M., et al. (2007). Inverse association of farm milk consumption with asthma and allergy in rural and suburban populations across Europe. Clinical and experimental allergy journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 37(5), 661-670. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17456213

Wheeler. (1983). Effect of processing upon concentration and distribution of natural and iodophor-derived iodine in milk. Journal of Dairy science, 66(2), 187-195.

Wickens, K., Lane, J. M., Fitzharris, P., Siebers, R., Riley, G., Douwes, J., Smith, T., et al. (2002). Farm residence and exposures and the risk of allergic diseases in New Zealand children. Allergy, 57(12), 1171-1179. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=12464046


Consumer Surveys


Headrick, M. L., Timbo, B., Klontz, K. C., & Werner, S. B. (1997). Profile of raw milk consumers in California. Public health reports Washington DC 1974, 112(5), 418-422. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1381950&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract

Katafiasz, A. R., & Bartlett, P. (2012). Motivation for unpasteurized milk consumption in Michigan, 2011. Food Protection Trends, 32(3), 124-128.


Review Articles


Ariyapitipun, T., Mustapha, A., & Clarke, A. D. (2000). Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk during fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Journal Of Food Protection, 63(1), 916-920. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10643784

Doyle, M. P., & Roman, D. J. (1982). Prevalence and survival of Campylobacter jejuni in unpasteurized milk. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 44(5), 1154-1158.

D’Amico, D. J., & Donnelly, C. W. (2010). Microbiological quality of raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheese production in Vermont: effect of farm characteristics and practices. Journal of Dairy Science, 93(1), 134-147. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20059912

Gaya, P., Medina, M., & Nuñez, M. (1987). Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, faecal coliforms and Salmonellas in raw ewes’ milk. The Journal of applied bacteriology, 62(4), 321-326.

Houser, B. A., Donaldson, S. C., Kehoe, S. I., Heinrichs, A. J., & Jayarao, B. M. (2008). A survey of bacteriological quality and the occurrence of Salmonella in raw bovine colostrum. Foodborne Pathogens And Disease, 5(6), 853-858.

Hussein, H. S., & Sakuma, T. (2005). Invited Review: Prevalence of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Dairy Cattle and Their Products. Journal of Dairy Science, 88(2), 450-465. Elsevier. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72706-5

Jaros, P., Cogger, N., & French, N. (2008). A systematic review of the human disease evidence associated with the consumption of raw milk and raw milk cheeses. Methodology, 64(0). Retrieved from http://www.foodsafety.govt.nz/elibrary/industry/systematic-review-human-research-projects/final-report-rawmilk.pdf

Jayarao, B. M., Donaldson, S. C., Straley, B. A., Sawant, A. A., Hegde, N. V., & Brown, J. L. (2006). A survey of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk and raw milk consumption among farm families in pennsylvania. Journal of Dairy Science, 89(7), 2451-2458. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16772561

Jayarao, B. M., & Henning, D. R. (2001). Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 84(10), 2157-2162. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11699446

Karns, J. S., Van Kessel, J. S., McCluskey, B. J., & Perdue, M. L. (2005). Prevalence of Salmonella enterica in bulk tank milk from US dairies as determined by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Dairy Science, 88(10), 3475-3479. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16162520

Kim, S. G., Kim, E. H., Lafferty, C. J., & Dubovi, E. (2005). Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 619-621. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15829205

Langer, A. J., Ayers, T., Grass, J., Lynch, M., Angulo, F. J., & Mahon, B. E. (2012). Nonpasteurized Dairy Products , Disease Outbreaks , and State. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 385-391. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111370

McGee, P., Bolton, D. J., Sheridan, J. J., Earley, B., & Leonard, N. (2001). Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in unpasteurized milk stored at 8 degrees C. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 32(3), 89-92. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11264743

Oliver, S. P., Jayarao, B. M., & Almeida, R. A. (2005). Foodborne pathogens in milk and the dairy farm environment: food safety and public health implications. Foodborne Pathogens And Disease, 2(2), 115-129. doi:10.1089/fpd.2005.2.115

Rea, M. C., Cogan, T. M., & Tobin, S. (1992). Incidence of pathogenic bacteria in raw milk in Ireland. The Journal of applied bacteriology, 73(4), 331-336.

Van Kessel, J. S., Karns, J. S., Gorski, L., McCluskey, B. J., & Perdue, M. L. (2004). Prevalence of Salmonellae, Listeria monocytogenes, and fecal coliforms in bulk tank milk on US dairies. Journal of Dairy Science, 87(9), 2822-2830. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15375040

Wang, G., Zhao, T., & Doyle, M. P. (1997). Survival and Growth of Escherichia coli 0157 : H7 in Unpasteurized and Pasteurized Milk. Food Microbiology, 60(6), 610-613.

 

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Real Life Dangers of
Raw Milk

Several families offered to share their stories on video to help raise awareness about the potential risks and negative effects on health from drinking contaminated raw milk.